1989. About PowWows.com - Founded in 1996, PowWows.com is your online gathering for all things Native American culture. “Hethushka Zani: An Ethnohistory of the War Dance Complex”. This archaeological site known as “Ponca Fort,” has been dated to circa 1700, and closely resembles the middle Mississippian fortified towns found in Ohio which date to 800 through 1550. In a sense it was not that different than what Nazi Germany did to the Jews. In his work titled Known Village Sites of the Ponca, Dr. James H. Howard cites evidence that the Ponca continued westward to the Black Hills, while the Omaha and Iowa remained in the vicinity of the White River around 1715. Membership in the tribe requires a 1/8 minimum blood quantum, according to rules developed by the tribe. Drum – principle chief of Fish Smell Village. By 20 October 1880, when agent A. R.  Satterwhite filed a report for the Ponca Agency in Indian Territory, the population of the Ponca in Oklahoma was now only 530 under the leadership of the following men: White Eagle Anthropological Papers, American Museum of Natural History, Vol. Often very little information is known or they no longer exist. 2, N.C. Carey and I. Lea, Philadelphia, PA. Mails, Thomas E. 1985. 1884. Dtepaitazhi (does not touch a buffalo head or skull). Last Updated on: October 20th, 2020, Traditions common to the Ponca, Omaha, Kansas, Osage and Quapaw give evidence that they were once a people living as a single group in the Northern Kentucky, Southern Ohio and Southern Indiana area along the Ohio River, and may have their earliest roots in the middle Mississippian culture known to exist in that area between 800 and 1550 ad (Howard, 1965, pp. About Osage Indian Bands and Clans. The Ponca Chief Iron Whip indicated the best route for the Mormons to follow when they continued on their journey west in April of 1847. In July of 1878, the Ponca were moved again to this new parcel of 101,894 acres, and it was set apart as the Ponca Reservation. In April 1987, Nebraska passed legislative resolution #128 giving state recognition to the Northern Ponca Tribe and its members. 1915. The Ponca were never a large tribe. NEWKIRK, Okla.–The Otoe-Missouria tribe announces the latest expansion of the 7Clans First Council Hotel and Casino property north of Newkirk, Oklahoma. (Fletcher & Laflesche, 1911, p. 218). “Dakota Grammar, Texts and Ethnography”. Although Standing Bear and his followers were freed in the spring of 1879, they had no home to return to in Nebraska. Bureau of American Ethnology, bulletin 195, Smithsonian Institution, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. Howard, Dr. James H. 1970. Unfortunately, this association with Europeans had caused a smallpox epidemic among the Ponca in 1800 prior to Lewis and Clark’s arrival, which significantly reduced their number. Required fields are marked *. The Northern Ponca now operates under a constitution consistent with the Indian Reorganization Act of 18 June 1934. 580-448-3100. 1959. The OMDA was developed in 2006, with a goal of serving tribal members by developing revenue sources. The combined party attacked the Ponca hunting camp, killing a Ponca sub-chief named Heavy Cloud and 14 others in retaliation for selling their lands to the U.S. Government the previous year. The Otoes provided them with enough food and horses to make their way back to Niobrara, Nebraska. My family, also, includes the late Emily No Ear Kent, and descent from Chief White Eagle and Chief Standing Bear. They speak a similar language to that spoken by several tribes who lived further south during the historic period, the Osage, Kansa and Quapaw tribes. Big Soldier Gift Shop. 1886. Traditionally, they were organized into four clans, each led by a chief with military, political, and religious authority. TC worked at the Ponca Tribe Blue Star Casino and various other jobs with the tribe. (Howard, 1970, p. 131). (Fletcher & Laflesche, 1911, p. 51). Among the 18 killed was the famous Ponca Chief, Shu-de-ga-xe or “Smoke Maker” (the first of this name). In the early 1700s, the Omaha, Ponca and Iowa migrated up the Missouri River to the mouth of the White River in South Dakota. (Dorsey, 1884, pp. Coffee…check! The Ponca were divided into two hunting groups, those from the Gray Blanket village and those from the Fish Smell village. Among other things, through an inexplicable and almost criminal blunder, the treaty established the boundaries of the “great Sioux (Lakota) Reservation” which included the 96,000 acres that was the Ponca Reservation. Upon arriving, he learned that a party of 30 Ponca men had been returning home from a friendly visit with the Oglala Lakota to the north, when they were attacked by a group of Brule or Sicangu Lakota. A Ponca gens, divided into the sub-gentes Sindeagdhe and Wamiitazhi, according to Dorsey. Big Bull To make matters worse, white settlers had been slowly filtering into Ponca Territory and squatting on valuable bottom land fields. “Societies of the Iowa, Kansa and Ponca Indians”. Later it is believed, the Ponca returned to build a village with the Omaha and the Iowa at the mouth of the White River. This document titled, “Constitution and Bylaws of the Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma” was registered with the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs. The names of eight clans of the Ponca Tribe are inlaid in the floor of the plaza in earth tone colors of terra-cotta red, pine green and various shades of browns. (Howard, 1965, p. 14) (Duncan, 1997, p. 33). The tribe’s probable size in 1780 was estimated at 800. Later during the 1600s, the Ponca, Omaha, Osage and Kansas that went upriver along the Mississippi, stayed for a time near present day Osage and Gasconde Counties in Missouri, west of present day St. Louis. During the 1830s the Ponca were generally thought to be allies with elements of the Yankton Dakota and the Teton Lakota and frequently joined with them in warfare against the Pawnee. ), Little Chief – son of Smoke Maker (has hereditary leadership rites.). We took their land as our own with very little regard for their human rights We should be ashamed for their treatment.That was not what this country is supposed to stand for. The Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma is headquartered in Ponca City, Oklahoma. “Known village sites of the Ponca”. Standing Bear's Band – 82 persons By 1770, the Omaha had migrated to a site on Omaha Creek to build a fortified earth lodge village by themselves which they called “Big Village” in present day Thurston County, Nebraska. 6, No. Department of Anthropology, Northeastern State University, Tahlequah, OK. Fletcher, Alice C. and Francis Laflesche. Also, 350 acres had been planted with corn and other vegetables. The name Sioux is an abbreviation of Nadouessioux (“Adders”; i.e., enemies), a name originally applied to them by the Ojibwa.The Santee, also known as the Eastern Sioux, were Dakota speakers and comprised the Mdewkanton, Wahpeton, Wahpekute, and Sisseton. “Plains Indians: Dog Soldiers, Bear Men and Buffalo Women”. And so, so much more. Then another separation took place at the mouth of the Osage River near present day Jefferson City, Missouri, as the Osage and the Kansas broke off from the Omaha, Ponca and Iowa. In 1825 another treaty with the Ponca was made, in which the Ponca acknowledged that they lived within the “territorial limits of the United States,” thereby recognizing the supremacy of the larger force of the U.S. Government. Gen. George Crook was then given orders by Secretary of the Interior Carl Schurz to arrest the run-a-ways and return them to Indian Territory. The Ponca chiefs made the journey to Indian Territory in Oklahoma, visiting many different land reserves which were equally barren and unsuitable for agriculture. Woodpecker's Band – 75 persons Notify me of follow-up comments by email. (Foreman, 1946, pp. Yes, that’s right, 135 years ago the GREAT PONCA CHIEF STANDING BEAR took a STAND in a Omaha courtroom. Their tribal jurisdictional area includes parts of Kay and Noble counties. By March 1879, Standing Bear and his followers had reached the Omaha Reservation in Nebraska, and the Omaha Chief Iron Eyes took pity on them, and offered food and asylum. ), Buffalo Chip – a chief of the 2nd rank (after Black Warrior dies in August 1846. Thank you for such a great history lesson. 15, No. However, the government made no effort to correct this fantastic error, or to protect the Ponca as promised in the treaty of 1858. Given as a subgens of the Ponca gens Nikapashna. It was then that the first treaty was made between the Ponca and the U.S. to establish “perpetual peace and friendship.” (Howard, 1965, p. 27), In the early 1800s, the Ponca were still a semi-sedentary tribe living in earth lodges that the Arikara taught them and the Omaha how to construct. 3. The Ponca were never a large tribe; an early estimate places their number at 800 individuals. This is the site of its former reservation and land allotted to 73 individual tribal members in 1891. It is believed that it was here, prior to 1673, that the Omaha’s sacred cedar pole was cut, an important religious object, and afterward the Omaha assigned each clan and sub-clan its particular customs and duties. It is then believed that the Omaha, Ponca and Iowa proceeded slowly northward through present day Missouri, and into present day Iowa. Baird, W. David. This uniqueness made the Tribe embark upon a vigorous program of educating and lobbying state and federal legislator officials to ensure that its members receive all the benefits and programs that the status as a federally recognized Tribe of Indians implies. In 1966, the Northern Poncas were completely terminated and all of their land and tribal holdings were dissolved. “The Last Trek of the Indians”. When these cited figures above are added, the total comes to 600 persons accounted for. Some 50 days later, the Ponca chiefs reached the Otoe Reservation along the Kansas/Nebraska border. The Ponca were suffering from malaria in this new country and many died from it. The Ponca Tribe of Nebraska has declared a State of Emergency in response to the COVID-19 virus. These Ponca chiefs were documented by the Mormons as: Buffalo Bull – head chief (also known as Little Bear. Explore American Indian Culture through articles, interviews, videos, photos, and live streaming. Contributions to North American Ethnology, Vol. Rush Into Battle 11, Part 9, New York, NY. 77 Newkirk , OK 74647. (Howard, 1965, p. 38). Chief Standing Bear's daughter Prairie Flower, and his wife Shines White, were among those who died along the way. (Howard, 1965, p. 15). ), Iron Whip – principle chief of Gray Blanket village (brother of two Bulls. The chiefs were then forced to make the journey home in the middle of winter, without money, food or an interpreter. While the Mormons were there, 9 Ponca chiefs and sub-chiefs arrived on the 8th of August 1846, intending to seek peace negotiations with the Pawnee. “The Ponca Tribe and the Mormons”, Shared History and Dedication, Desktop Pub. 12375 N. Hwy. However, the larger tribe of Pawnee frequently made war on the Ponca when their northern allies were not around. 1910. Dtesinde (buffalo tail). Bonanza Books, NY. We have included them here to provide more information about the tribes. Of the 3,787 enrolled tribal members, 3000 live within the state of Oklahoma. 1992. The 1st Ponka half-tribe, composed of 4 gentes. My mother and her mother before her were knowledgeable about their culture. Dtesindeitazhi (does not touch a buffalo tail). I thought you might like to see a cemetery for Ponca Tribal Cemetery I found on Findagrave.com. Dtedhezedhatazhi (does not eat buffalo tongues). From this time, the Ponca have been divided into the Northern Ponca of Nebraska and the Southern Ponca of Oklahoma. Close. Poverty and disease would continue to take its toll on the Ponca over the years, however their populations steadily increased. In the summer of 1846, an advanced party of 400 Mormons were heading west to find a route through the Rocky Mountains after being driven from their homes in Nauvoo, Illinois earlier that year. (Report of P. Wilson to B. O’Fallon, 1824, National Archives, St. Louis Superintendency). At 7 Clans, we have all the best in Gaming, Dining, Entertainment, and Accommodations! Ponca Indian Bands, Gens and Clans Leave a Comment / Native American Many tribes have sub-tribes, bands, gens, clans and phratry. It is with great sadness that we share the news that has been reported by the Twelve Clans Unity Hospital of … Effective Monday, March 16th, the Ponca Tribe of Nebraska has instituted a travel ban for all employees and tribal officials. By 1906, just one year prior to Oklahoma statehood, the total Ponca population was 833, divided as 570 Southern Ponca in Oklahoma and 263 Northern Ponca in Nebraska. Over The Land's Band – 73 persons Enter your email address to subscribe to AccessGenealogy and receive notifications of new posts by email. “Archaeology and Ethnohistory of the Omaha Indians: The Big Village Site”. It was in this same area that Omaha and Ponca oral history say that the Omaha, Ponca and Iowa first encountered the Marinara, who at that time occupied territory in Northeastern Nebraska. Native Lights Casino is … Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 30, Part 2, Smithsonian Institution, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. Duncan, Jim. The tribe has broken ground on a project that will create a year-round destination for family entertainment. It is shameful and disturbing to me today how these people were violated and suffered. Those that traveled upriver were known as u-mon-hon meaning “against the current” or “upstream.” the u-mon-hon or Omaha was also comprised of the Ponca, Osage and Kansas. Cut off from the buffalo and fearful of leaving their villages to farm outlying fields, the Ponca were often at the point of starvation. WiFi…check! Later in 1847 the Mormons settled in the Rocky Mountains in what is now Salt Lake City, Utah. 1890. 6, Washington, D.C. Dorsey, Rev. Bureau of American Ethnology, 18th Annual Report 1896-97, Smithsonian Institution, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. Skinner, Alanson B. ), Black Warrior – a chief of the 2nd rank (nephew of Buffalo Bull. Learn More… “The Siouan Indians, A Preliminary Sketch”. By 1804, largely because of smallpox, their numbers dwindled to around 200. Posted By Jonathan Holmes The new Perry location is a 4,500-square-foot facility that includes over 100 slot machines, blackjack, poker and a drive-thru smoke shop. Yes, he was a great and proud man, as were they all. When Bear Shield, the eldest 12 year old son of Chief Standing Bear died in 1878, the Chief was unwilling to bury him in this strange country. James Owen. Ponca Tribe of Nebraska. Sioux, broad alliance of North American Indian peoples who spoke three related languages within the Siouan language family. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Royce, Charles C. 1899. Also, Please display your American Flag in honor of this great Chief. Most of the anthropological literature agrees with this main point, including the evidence that during a migration to the north and west, the larger Dhegihan group split up, forming separate tribes. This was believed to be a means of self-preservation for the now smaller tribe of Ponca, whose lands were in-between the Lakota and Pawnee territories. The Chief It was the ft. Laramie treaty of 1868 that forever altered the course of Ponca history. 16:46. Bureau of American Ethnology, 27th Annual Report 1905-06, Smithsonian Institution, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. Foreman, Grant. ), Two Bulls – son of Buffalo Bull (he becomes head chief when his father dies in September 1846. The United States Government denied the right of Standing Bear to obtain a writ of habeas corpus on the grounds that “an Indian is not a person within the meaning of the law.”. During this time, the Omaha and Iowa pushed further south along the Missouri River to build a village at Covington, Nebraska in present day Dakota County. I am shamed for this country though in how it treated our native Americans. A center pool reflects the sky, and at its center, the eternal flame of “grandfather fire” burns on a large round sandstone pedestal. Ponca Tribe. The meaning of the name is lost. The Kay County town of Tonkawa is headquarters for the Tonkawa Tribe of Oklahoma, where a museum preserves the tribe’s cultural heritage. 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